Archive for May 2012

Bougainville (paper flowers )

Bougainville or paper flowers are from Latin America. Latin name is Bougainvillea, including the family Nyctaginaceae. This flower has 13 species; the most widely grown is B.spectabilis and B. glabra. B. spectabilis has bright flowers that stand out with garlands and the circuit is long. Have color as white, purple, orange and red.  B. glabra flowers have appearance among the leaves.


Bougainville is represented as a love interest for lovers, mothers, children and all beings in the world. Some also believe that Bougainville should not be planted in front of the house, because the owner can get a disaster. This flower is somewhat strange, if she is planted in a dry and less fertile she will produce lush flowers.

Bougainville is a popular ornamental plant. These plants are small trees and hard to stand upright. Its beauty comes from a series of brightly colored flowers those attract attention. These flowers grow lush and beautiful.

Bougainvillea is a genus of flowering plants native to South America from Brazil west to Peru and south to southern Argentina (Chubut Province). Different authors accept between four and 18 species in the genus.


The plant was first described by Philibert Commerçon, a French botanist accompanying French Navy admiral and explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville during his voyage of circumnavigation, and first published for him by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789.


It is possible that the plants were first discovered by Jeanne Baré, Commerçon's lover and assistant whom he stuck on board (despite regulations) disguised as a man (and who thus became the first woman to circumnavigate the globe).

They are thorny, woody vines growing anywhere from 1 to 12 meters tall, scrambling over other plants with their spiky thorns. The thorns are tipped with a black, waxy substance. They are evergreen where rainfall occurs all year, or deciduous if there is a dry season. The leaves are alternate, simple ovate-acuminate, 4-13 cm long and 2-6 cm broad.


The actual flower of the plant is small and generally white, but each cluster of three flowers is surrounded by three or six bracts with the bright colours associated with the plant, including pink, magenta, purple, red, orange, white, or yellow.

Bougainvillea glabra is sometimes referred to as "paper flower" because the bracts are thin and papery. The fruit is a narrow five-lobed achene.


Bougainvillea is relatively pest-free plants, but may suffer from worms, snails and aphids. The larvae of some Lepidoptera species also use them as food plants, for example the Giant Leopard Moth (Hypercompe scribonia).

Bougainvilleas are popular ornamental plants in most areas with warm climates, including Ethiopia, Indonesia, Aruba, the Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia, Australia, Greece, Spain, Turkey, Cyprus, Singapore, the Mediterranean region, the Caribbean, Central America, Mexico, South Africa, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates and the southern mainland United States and Hawaii. Locarno in Switzerland, with its mild Mediterranean climate, is famous for its bougainvilleas.

Although it is frost-sensitive and hardy in U.S. Hardiness Zones 9b and 10, bougainvillea can be used as a houseplant or hanging basket in cooler climates. In the landscape, it makes an excellent hot season plant, and its drought tolerance makes bougainvillea ideal for warm climates year-round. Bougainvillea has a high salt tolerance, which makes it a natural choice for color on coastal regions.


As a woody clambering vine, bougainvillea will stand alone and can be pruned into a standard, but it is perfect along fence lines, on walls, in containers and hanging baskets, and as a hedge or an accent plant. Its long arching branches are thorny, and bear heart-shaped leaves and masses of papery bracts in white, pink, orange, purple, and burgundy. Many cultivars, including double flowered and variegated, is available.

 Many of today's bougainvilleas are the result of interbreeding among only three out of the eighteen South American species recognized by botanists.


Currently, there are over 300 varieties of bougainvillea around the world. Because many of the hybrids have been crossed over several generations, it's difficult to identify their respective origins.


Natural mutations seem to occur spontaneously throughout the world; wherever large numbers of plants are being produced, bud-sports will occur. This had led to multiple names for the same cultivar (or variety) and has added to the confusion over the names of bougainvillea cultivars.


The growth rate of Bougainvillea varies from slow-growing to rapid, depending on the particular variety. Bougainvillea tends to flower all year round in equatorial regions. Elsewhere, they are seasonal bloomers. They grow best in somewhat dry, fertile soil. Bloom cycles are typically four to six weeks.

Bougainvilleas grow best in very bright full sun and with frequent fertilization, but the plant requires little water once established. As indoor houseplants in temperate regions, they can be kept small by bonsai techniques. If overwatered,  


Bougainvillea will not flower and may lose leaves or wilt, or even die from root decay. Bougainvillea can be easily propagated via tip cuttings. The sap of the Bougainvillea can cause skin rashes similar to Toxicodendron species.

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Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta)


Black Eyed Susan Flowers is one of the backbones of classical plant mid to late summer perennial garden. Black Eyed Susan means eternal flower that is always cheerful. This flower has yellow petals with a dark middle section. Thrive in full sun in the region of North America, usually in June-August.


Rudbeckia hirta, the Black-eyed Susan, with the other common names of: Brown-eyed Susan, Brown Betty, Brown Daisy (Rudbeckia triloba), Gloriosa Daisy, Golden Jerusalem, Poorland Daisy, Yellow Daisy, and Yellow Ox-eye Daisy. It is a flowering plant in the family Asteraceae. 


It is an upright annual (sometimes biennial or perennial) native to most of North America, and is one of a number of plants with the common name Black-eyed Susan with flowers having dark purplish brown centers. 


Black-eyed Susans can be established, like most other wildflowers, simply by spreading seeds throughout a designated area. They are able to reseed themselves after the first season.


The way to make Black Eyed Susan plants stay alive is to give them full sun and decent soil. Soil fertility will provide the best flower show. Black Eyed Susan flowers are used for the symbol of the state of Maryland. These plants usually reach a height of 18 inches to 72 inches. This flower is a type of wild flowers.

Planting Black Eyed Susan can be done by spreading the seeds or division. Hybrids will not be achieved by seed, so it is advisable to wear division. Black Eyed Susan flowers can be used as a cure wounds, swelling and the drug when exposed to snake bites.


The genus name honors Olaus Rudbeck, who was a professor of botany at the University of Uppsala in Sweden and was one of Linnaeus's teachers. The specific epithet refers to the trichomes (hairs) occurring on leaves and stems.

The plant can reach a height of 1 m. It has alternate, mostly basal leaves 10-18 cm long, covered by coarse hair. It flowers from June to August, with inflorescences measuring 5-8 cm in diameter (up to 15 cm in some cultivars), with yellow ray florets circling a brown, domed center of disc florets.


There are four varieties:
  • Rudbeckia hirta var. angustifolia. Southeastern United States (South Carolina to Texas).
  • Rudbeckia hirta var. floridana. Florida, endemic.
  • Rudbeckia hirta var. hirta. Northeastern United States (Maine to Alabama).
  • Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima. Widespread in most of North America (Newfoundland to British Columbia, south to Alabama and New Mexico; naturalized Washington to California).

Butterflies are attracted to Rudbeckia hirta when planted in large color-masses. Numerous cultivars have been selected for garden planting; some popular ones include 'Double Gold', 'Indian Summer', and 'Marmalade'.

The roots but not seedheads of Rudbeckia hirta can be used much like the related Echinacea purpurea. It is an astringent used as in a warm infusion as a wash for sores and swellings. 


The Ojibwa used it as a poultice for snake bites and to make an infusion for treating colds and worms in children. The plant is diuretic and was used by the Menominee and Potawatomi. Juice from the roots had been used as drops for earaches. The plant contains anthocyanins.


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Banksia ericifolia flower, derived from the family Proteaceae. The tree-shaped shrub are found in size of medium to large. This plant was discovered by indigenous Australians. Banksia ericifolia flower is a shrub that is very strong. We may often find them in rural areas. Over time, dwarf cultivars and prostrate species are becoming more popular as urban gardens grow ever smaller. These include miniature forms under 50 cm high of B. spinulosa and B. media, as well as prostrate species such as B. petiolaris and B. blechnifolia .

Banksia flower can reach 3-4 meters high. Usually in Australia are often used as fence. Banksia has small green leaves. Usually in late spring to summer they produce lots of large flowers. The flowers are shaped like ears erect up to 25-30 cm. Banksia ericifolia flowers usually have a yellow or orange color.


Banksia ericifolia flowers can be planted in a sunny or partially shaded. They are also not afraid of the cold despite the chill in the long term can damage the flower. But it remains advisable to put them in a place where the winds of winter cannot come. Banksia prefers an acidic soil with good drainage and with little water retention. Usually Banksia uses a special potting soil for acidophilic plants.

Banksia is a genus of around 170 species in the plant family Proteaceae. These Australian wildflowers and popular garden plants are easily recognised by their characteristic flower spikes and fruiting "cones" and heads. When it comes to size, banksias range from prostrate woody shrubs to trees up to 30 metres tall. They are generally found in a wide variety of landscapes; sclerophyll forest, (occasionally) rainforest, shrubland, and some more arid landscapes, though not in Australia's deserts.

Heavy producers of nectar, banksias form a vital part of the food chain in the Australian bush. They are an important food source for all sorts of nectariferous animals, including birds, bats, rats, possums, stingless bees and a host of invertebrates. Furthermore, they are of economic importance to Australia's nursery and cut flower industries. However these plants are threatened by a number of processes including land clearing, frequent burning and disease, and a number of species are rare and endangered.

Banksias grow as trees or woody shrubs. Trees of the largest species, B. integrifolia (Coast Banksia) and B. seminuda (River Banksia), often grow over 15 metres tall, some even grow to standing 30 metres tall.  Banksia species that grow as shrubs are usually erect, but there are several species that are prostrate, with branches that grow on or below the soil.

The leaves of Banksia vary greatly between species. Sizes vary from the narrow, 1–1½ centimetre long leaves of B. ericifolia (Heath-leaved Banksia), to the very large leaves of B. grandis (Bull Banksia), which may be up to 45 centimetres long. The leaves of most species have serrated edges, but a few, such as B. integrifolia, do not. Leaves are usually arranged along the branches in irregular spirals, but in some species they are crowded together in whorls. Many species have differing juvenile and adult leaves (e.g. Banksia integrifolia has large serrated juvenile leaves).

The character most commonly associated with Banksia is the flower spike, an elongated inflorescence consisting of a woody axis covered in tightly-packed pairs of flowers attached at right angles. A single flower spike generally contains hundreds or even thousands of flowers; the most recorded is around 6000 on inflorescences of B. grandis.


Not all Banksia have an elongate flower spike, however: the members of the small Isostylis complex have long been recognized as Banksias in which the flower spike has been reduced to a head; and recently the large genus Dryandra has been found to have arisen from within the ranks of Banksia, and sunk into it as B. ser. Dryandra. Thus fewer than half of the currently accepted Banksia taxa possess the elongated flower spike long considered characteristic of the genus.

Banksia flowers are usually a shade of yellow, but orange, red, pink and even violet flowers also occur. The colour of the flowers is determined by the colour of the perianth parts and often the style. The style is much longer than the perianth, and is initially trapped by the upper perianth parts. These are gradually released over a period of days, either from top to bottom or from bottom to top. 


When the styles and perianth parts are different colours, the visual effect is of a colour change sweeping along the spike. This can be most spectacular in B. prionotes (Acorn Banksia) and related species, as the white inflorescence in bud becomes a brilliant orange. In most cases, the individual flowers are tall, thin saccate (sack-shaped) in shape.

As the flower spikes or heads age, the flower parts dry up and may turn shades of orange, tan or dark brown colour, before fading to grey over a period of years. In some species, old flower parts are lost, revealing the axis; in others, the old flower parts may persist for many years, giving the fruiting structure a hairy appearance. Old flower spikes are commonly referred to as "cones", although they are not: cones only occur in conifers and cycads.

Despite the large number of flowers per inflorescence, only a few of them ever develop fruit, and in some species a flower spike will set no fruit at all. The fruit of Banksia is a woody follicle embedded in the axis of the inflorescence. These consist of two horizontal valves that tightly enclose the seeds.


The follicle opens to release the seed by splitting along the suture, and in some species each valve splits too. In some species the follicles open as soon as the seed is mature, but in most species most follicles open only after stimulated to do so by bushfire. Each follicle usually contains one or two small seeds, each with a wedge-shaped papery wing that causes it to spin as it falls to the ground.

The Indigenous people of south-western Australia would suck on the flower spikes to obtain the nectar, they also soaked the flower spikes in water to make a sweet drink. Banksia trees are a reliable source of insect larvae which are extracted as food.

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Azalea flowers are a type of flowering plant of family Ericaceae that grow in temperate climates. These plants grow in areas of Southeast Asia, Australia and America. This flower is used as ornamental plants. They grow in forests and swamps. This flower is also used as barrier fences.

This flower has various colors; like red, white, purple and yellow. But there are over 10,000 species now. Looking at these plants makes the heart feel cool and happy. Azelea serves as carbon dioxide absorber and gives a cool aura. Azalea flowers can be propagated by cuttings or by seed.

Azaleas do not require much sunlight. The leaves will turn yellow and the flowers will be small if it receives too much sun. This plant is also easily propagated. The easiest way to do is by stem cuttings. This flower is legendary. Many contemporary stories in china mention them in ancient stories. 


Azaleas are flowering shrubs comprising two of the eight subgenera of the genus Rhododendron, Pentanthera (deciduous) and Tsutsuji (evergreen). Azaleas bloom in spring, their flowers often lasting several weeks. Shade tolerant, they prefer living near or under trees.

Plant enthusiasts have selectively bred azaleas for hundreds of years. This human selection has produced over 10,000 different cultivars which are propagated by cuttings. Azalea seeds can also be collected and germinated.


Azaleas are generally slow-growing and do best in well-drained acidic soil (4.5–6.0 pH). Fertilizer needs are low; some species need regular pruning. Azaleas are native to several continents including Asia, Europe and North America. They are planted abundantly as ornamentals in the southeastern US.


Azalea leafy gall can be particularly destructive to azalea leaves during the early spring. Hand picking infected leaves is the recommended method of control.They can also be subject to phytophthora root rot in moist, hot conditions.

In Chinese culture, the azalea is known as "thinking of home bush" (siangish shu) and is immortalized in the poetry of Tu Fu and is used to rich effect in contemporary stories such as by Taiwanese author Pai, Hsien-Yung. The azalea is also one of the symbols of the city of São Paulo, in Brazil. 


In addition to being renowned for its beauty, the Azalea is also highly toxic--it contains andromedotoxins in both its leaves and nectar, including honey from the nectar. The Azalea and Rhododendron were once so infamous for their toxicity that to receive a bouquet of their flowers in a black vase was a well-known death threat.


Many cities in the United States have festivals in the spring celebrating the blooms of the azalea, including Norfolk, Virginia; Wilmington, North Carolina (North Carolina Azalea Festival); Valdosta, Georgia; Palatka, Florida (Florida Azalea Festival); Pickens, South Carolina;. 


The Azalea Trail is a designated path, planted with azaleas in private gardens, through Mobile, Alabama. The Azalea Trail Run is an annual road running event held there in late March. Mobile, Alabama is also home to the Azalea Trail Maids, fifty women chosen to serve as ambassadors of the city while wearing antebellum dresses, which originally participated in a three-day festival, but now operate throughout the year.


Motoyama, Kochi also has a flower festival in which the blooming of Tsutsuji is celebrated and Tatebayashi, Gunma is famous for its Azalea Hill Park, Tsutsuji-ga-oka. Nezu Shrine in Bunkyo, Tokyo, holds a Tsutsuji Matsuri from early April until early May.


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