Bougainville (paper flowers )

Bougainville or paper flowers are from Latin America. Latin name is Bougainvillea, including the family Nyctaginaceae. This flower has 13 species; the most widely grown is B.spectabilis and B. glabra. B. spectabilis has bright flowers that stand out with garlands and the circuit is long. Have color as white, purple, orange and red.  B. glabra flowers have appearance among the leaves.


Bougainville is represented as a love interest for lovers, mothers, children and all beings in the world. Some also believe that Bougainville should not be planted in front of the house, because the owner can get a disaster. This flower is somewhat strange, if she is planted in a dry and less fertile she will produce lush flowers.

Bougainville is a popular ornamental plant. These plants are small trees and hard to stand upright. Its beauty comes from a series of brightly colored flowers those attract attention. These flowers grow lush and beautiful.

Bougainvillea is a genus of flowering plants native to South America from Brazil west to Peru and south to southern Argentina (Chubut Province). Different authors accept between four and 18 species in the genus.


The plant was first described by Philibert Commerçon, a French botanist accompanying French Navy admiral and explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville during his voyage of circumnavigation, and first published for him by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789.


It is possible that the plants were first discovered by Jeanne Baré, Commerçon's lover and assistant whom he stuck on board (despite regulations) disguised as a man (and who thus became the first woman to circumnavigate the globe).

They are thorny, woody vines growing anywhere from 1 to 12 meters tall, scrambling over other plants with their spiky thorns. The thorns are tipped with a black, waxy substance. They are evergreen where rainfall occurs all year, or deciduous if there is a dry season. The leaves are alternate, simple ovate-acuminate, 4-13 cm long and 2-6 cm broad.


The actual flower of the plant is small and generally white, but each cluster of three flowers is surrounded by three or six bracts with the bright colours associated with the plant, including pink, magenta, purple, red, orange, white, or yellow.

Bougainvillea glabra is sometimes referred to as "paper flower" because the bracts are thin and papery. The fruit is a narrow five-lobed achene.


Bougainvillea is relatively pest-free plants, but may suffer from worms, snails and aphids. The larvae of some Lepidoptera species also use them as food plants, for example the Giant Leopard Moth (Hypercompe scribonia).

Bougainvilleas are popular ornamental plants in most areas with warm climates, including Ethiopia, Indonesia, Aruba, the Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia, Australia, Greece, Spain, Turkey, Cyprus, Singapore, the Mediterranean region, the Caribbean, Central America, Mexico, South Africa, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates and the southern mainland United States and Hawaii. Locarno in Switzerland, with its mild Mediterranean climate, is famous for its bougainvilleas.

Although it is frost-sensitive and hardy in U.S. Hardiness Zones 9b and 10, bougainvillea can be used as a houseplant or hanging basket in cooler climates. In the landscape, it makes an excellent hot season plant, and its drought tolerance makes bougainvillea ideal for warm climates year-round. Bougainvillea has a high salt tolerance, which makes it a natural choice for color on coastal regions.


As a woody clambering vine, bougainvillea will stand alone and can be pruned into a standard, but it is perfect along fence lines, on walls, in containers and hanging baskets, and as a hedge or an accent plant. Its long arching branches are thorny, and bear heart-shaped leaves and masses of papery bracts in white, pink, orange, purple, and burgundy. Many cultivars, including double flowered and variegated, is available.

 Many of today's bougainvilleas are the result of interbreeding among only three out of the eighteen South American species recognized by botanists.


Currently, there are over 300 varieties of bougainvillea around the world. Because many of the hybrids have been crossed over several generations, it's difficult to identify their respective origins.


Natural mutations seem to occur spontaneously throughout the world; wherever large numbers of plants are being produced, bud-sports will occur. This had led to multiple names for the same cultivar (or variety) and has added to the confusion over the names of bougainvillea cultivars.


The growth rate of Bougainvillea varies from slow-growing to rapid, depending on the particular variety. Bougainvillea tends to flower all year round in equatorial regions. Elsewhere, they are seasonal bloomers. They grow best in somewhat dry, fertile soil. Bloom cycles are typically four to six weeks.

Bougainvilleas grow best in very bright full sun and with frequent fertilization, but the plant requires little water once established. As indoor houseplants in temperate regions, they can be kept small by bonsai techniques. If overwatered,  


Bougainvillea will not flower and may lose leaves or wilt, or even die from root decay. Bougainvillea can be easily propagated via tip cuttings. The sap of the Bougainvillea can cause skin rashes similar to Toxicodendron species.

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